New Parinam Patrak 2023: In Education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals.

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SCE Parinam Patrako: In a 2003 study, Reys, Reys, Lapan, Holliday, and Wasman refer to the curriculum as a set of learning goals articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at particular points in time throughout the K-12 school program.

The curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. 

The curriculum is split into several categories: the explicit, the implicit (including the hidden), the excluded, and the extracurricular. Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results.

It looks at original objectives, and at what is either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished. So evaluation can be formative, that is taking place during the development of a concept or proposal, project, or organization, with the intention of improving the value or effectiveness of the proposal, project, or organization.

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It can also be summative, drawing lessons from a completed action or project or an organization at a later point in time or circumstance.

The curriculum may be tightly standardized or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy. Many countries have national curricula for primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom's National Curriculum.

UNESCO's International Bureau of Education has the primary mission of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide. Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

It can assist an organization, program, design, project, or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realizable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed.

The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change. 

Evaluation is often used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises, including the arts, criminal justice, foundations, non-profit organizations, government, health care, and other human services. It is long-term and done at the end of a period of time.

Evaluation is inherently a theoretically informed approach (whether explicitly or not), and consequently, any particular definition of evaluation would have been tailored to its context – the theory, needs, purpose, and methodology of the evaluation process itself. Having said this, evaluation has been defined as:  


A systematic, rigorous, and meticulous application of scientific methods to assess the design, implementation, improvement, or outcomes of a program. 

It is a resource-intensive process, frequently requiring resources, such as, evaluating expertise, labor, time, and a sizable budget "The critical assessment, in as objective a manner as possible, of the degree to which a service or its component parts fulfills stated goals.

"The focus of this definition is on attaining objective knowledge, and scientifically or quantitatively measuring predetermined and external concepts. "

A study designed to assist some audience to assess an object's merit and worth" (Stufflebeam).In this definition, the focus is on facts as well as value-laden judgments of the program's outcomes and worth.

An alternative view is that "projects, evaluators, and other stakeholders (including funders) will all have potentially different ideas about how best to evaluate a project since each may have a different definition of 'merit'. 

The core of the problem is thus about defining what is of value." From this perspective, evaluation "is a contested term", as "evaluators" use the term evaluation to describe an assessment, or investigation of a program whilst others simply understand evaluation as being synonymous with applied research.

There are two functions considering the evaluation purpose Formative Evaluations provide the information on improving a product or a process Summative Evaluations provide information on short-term effectiveness or long-term impact to deciding the adoption of a product or process.


Not all evaluations serve the same purpose some evaluations serve a monitoring function rather than focusing solely on measurable program outcomes or evaluation findings and a full list of types of evaluations would be difficult to compile. 

This is because evaluation is not part of a unified theoretical framework, drawing on a number of disciplines, which include management and organizational theory, policy analysis, education, sociology, social anthropology, and social change.

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However, the strict adherence to a set of methodological assumptions may make the field of evaluation more acceptable to a mainstream audience but this adherence will work towards preventing evaluators from developing new strategies for dealing with the myriad problems that programs face. It is claimed that only a minority of evaluation reports are used by the evaluand. 

One justification for this is that "when evaluation findings are challenged or utilization has failed, it was because stakeholders and clients found the inferences weak or the warrants unconvincing" (Fournier and Smith, 1993). Some reasons for this situation may be the failure of the evaluator to establish a set of shared aims with the evaluand, or creating overly ambitious aims, as well as failing to compromise and incorporate the cultural differences of individuals and programs within the evaluation aims and process.

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None of these problems are due to a lack of a definition of evaluation but are rather due to evaluators attempting to impose predisposed notions and definitions of evaluations on clients. 
The central reason for the poor utilization of evaluations is arguably due to the lack of tailoring of evaluations to suit the needs of the client, due to a predefined idea (or definition) of what an evaluation is rather than what the client needs are.

The development of a standard methodology for evaluation will require arriving at applicable ways of asking and stating the results of questions about ethics such as agent-principal, privacy, stakeholder definition, limited liability; and could-the-money-be-spent-more-wisely issues.